Doctors and providers who treat this condition


Diabetes (General Information)

Diabetes is a long-term health problem that means your body does not make enough insulin. Or it may mean that your body cannot use the insulin it makes. Insulin is a hormone in your body. It lets blood sugar (glucose) reach the cells in your body. All of your cells need glucose for fuel.

When you have diabetes the glucose in your blood builds up because it cannot get into the cells. This buildup is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

Your blood sugar level depends on several things. It depends on what kind of food you eat and how much of it you eat. It also depends on how much exercise you get, and how much insulin you have in your body. Eating too much of the wrong kinds of food or not taking diabetes medicine on time can cause high blood sugar. Infections can cause high blood sugar even if you are taking medicines correctly.

These things can also cause high blood sugar:

  • Missing meals

  • Not eating enough food

  • Taking too much diabetes medicine

Diabetes can cause serious problems over time if you do not get treated. These problems include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and blindness. They also include nerve pain or loss of feeling in your legs and feet, and gangrene of the feet. By keeping your blood sugar under control you can prevent or delay these problems.

Normal blood sugar levels are 70 to 130 one to two hours before a meal and not more than 180 two hours after a meal.

Home care

Follow these guidelines when caring for yourself at home:

  • Follow the diet your health care provider gives you. Take insulin or other diabetes medicine exactly as told to.

  • Watch your blood sugar as you are told to. Keep a log of your results. This will help your provider change your medicines to keep your blood sugar under control.

  • Try to reach your ideal weight. You may be able to cut back on or not have to take diabetes medicine if you eat the right foods and get exercise.

  • Do not smoke. Smoking makes the effects of diabetes worse on your circulation. You are much more likely to have a heart attack if you have diabetes and you smoke.

  • Take good care of your feet. If you have lost feeling in your feet, you may not see an injury or infection. Check your feet and between your toes at least once a week.

  • Wear a medical alert bracelet or carry a card in your wallet that says you have diabetes. This will help health care providers give you the right care if you get very ill and cannot tell them that you have diabetes.

Sick day plan

If you get a cold, the flu, or a bacterial or viral infection, take these steps:

  • Look at your diabetes sick plan and call your health care provider as you were told to. You may need to call your provider right away if:

    • Your blood sugar is above 240 while taking your diabetes medicine

    • Your urine ketone levels are above normal or high

    • You have been vomiting more than 6 hours

    • You have trouble breathing

    • You have a high fever

    • You have a fever for several days and you are not getting better

    • You get light-headed and are sleepier than usual

  • Keep taking your diabetes pills (oral medicine) even if you have been vomiting and are feeling sick. Call your provider right away because you may need insulin to lower your blood sugar until you recover from your illness.

  • Keep taking your insulin even if you have been vomiting and are feeling sick. Call your provider right away to ask if you need to change your insulin dose. This will depend on your blood sugar results.

  • Check your blood sugar every 2 to 4 hours, or at least 4 times a day.

  • Check your ketones often. If you are vomiting and having diarrhea, watch them more often.

  • Do not skip meals. Try to eat small meals on a regular schedule. Do this even if you do not feel like eating.

  • Drink water or other liquids that do not have caffeine or calories. This will keep you from getting dehydrated. If you are nauseated or vomiting, takes small sips every 5 minutes. To prevent dehydration try to drink a cup (8 ounces) of fluids every hour while you are awake.

General care

Always bring a source of fast-acting sugar with you in case you have symptoms of low blood sugar (below 70). At the first sign of low blood sugar, eat or drink 15 to 20 grams of fast-acting sugar to raise your blood sugar. Examples are:

  • 3 to 4 glucose tablets. You can buy these at most drugstores.

  • 4 ounces (1/2 cup) of regular (not diet) soft drinks

  • 4 ounces (1/2 cup) of any fruit juice

  • 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk

  • 5 to 6 pieces of hard candy

  • 1 tablespoon of honey

Check your blood sugar 15 minutes after treating yourself. If it is still below 70, take 15 to 20 more grams of fast-acting sugar. Test again in 15 minutes. If it returns to normal (70 or above), eat a snack or meal to keep your blood sugar in a safe range. If it stays low, call your doctor or go to an emergency room.

Follow-up care

Follow-up with your health care provider, or as advised. For more information about diabetes, visit the American Diabetes Association website at or call 800-342-2383.

When to seek medical advice

Call your health care provider right away if you have any of these symptoms of high blood sugar:

  • Frequent urination

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • Thirst

  • Headache

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Abdominal pain

  • Eyesight changes

  • Fast breathing

  • Confusion or loss of consciousness

Also call your provider right away if you have any of these signs of low blood sugar:

  • Fatigue

  • Headache

  • Shakes

  • Excess sweating

  • Hunger

  • Feeling anxious or restless

  • Eyesight changes

  • Drowsiness

  • Weakness

  • Confusion or loss of consciousness

Call your provider right away if any of these occur:

  • Chest pain or shortness of breath

  • Dizziness or fainting

  • Weakness of an arm or leg or one side of the face

  • Trouble speaking or seeing



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